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How-to Deploy Django Apps with uWSGI and Nginx on Ubuntu

Django 的部署可以有很多方式,采用 nginx + uwsgi 的方式是其中比较常见的一种方式。

准备工作

安装所需软件

pip install Django
apt-get install nginx

pip install uwsgi
# 注: 在 Debian/Ubuntu 系统中需要安装 python-dev

基本测试

创建一个 test.py 的文件

# test.py
def application(env, start_response):
    start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type','text/html')])
    return [b"Hello World"] # python3
    #return ["Hello World"] # python2

运行 uWSGI

uwsgi --http :8000 --wsgi-file test.py

参数含义: http :8000: 使用http协议 8000端口 wsgi-file test.py: 加载指定文件 test.py 执行 Curl 命令在终端上返回 Hello world

$curl http://172.16.9.110:8000
Hello World

如果返回的是正确的内容,说明下面工作流程的组件是工作的:

the web client <-> uWSGI <-> Python

测试你的 Django 项目 确保你的项目是可以顺利运行的

python manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000

如果没有报错,使用 uWSGI 的方式运行它

uwsgi --http :8000 --wsgi-file mysite.wsgi

通过浏览器访问正常, 说明下面工作流程的组件是工作的:

the web client <-> uWSGI <-> Django

配置 Nginx

# mysite_nginx.conf

# the upstream component nginx needs to connect to
upstream django {
    server unix:///path/to/your/mysite/mysite.sock; # for a file socket
    # server 127.0.0.1:8001; # for a web port socket (we'll use this first)
}

# configuration of the server
server {
    # the port your site will be served on
    listen      8000;
    # the domain name it will serve for
    server_name .example.com; # substitute your machine's IP address or FQDN
    charset     utf-8;

    # max upload size
    client_max_body_size 75M;   # adjust to taste

    # Django media
    location /media  {
        alias /path/to/your/mysite/media;  # your Django project's media files - amend as required
    }

    location /static {
        alias /path/to/your/mysite/static; # your Django project's static files - amend as required
    }

    # Finally, send all non-media requests to the Django server.
    location / {
        uwsgi_pass  django;
        include     /path/to/your/mysite/uwsgi_params; # the uwsgi_params file you installed
    }
}

Running the Django application with uswgi and nginx

如果上面一切都显示正常,则下面命令可以拉起django application

uwsgi --socket mysite.sock --wsgi-file mysite.wsgi --chmod-socket=664

Configuring uWSGI to run with a .ini file

每次都运行上面命令拉起django application实在麻烦,使用.ini文件能简化工作,方法如下: 在application目录下创建文件mysite_uwsgi.ini,填入并修改下面内容:

# mysite_uwsgi.ini file
[uwsgi]

# Django-related settings
# the base directory (full path)
chdir           = /path/to/your/project
# Django's wsgi file
module          = project.wsgi
# the virtualenv (full path)
home            = /path/to/virtualenv

# process-related settings
# master
master          = true
# maximum number of worker processes
processes       = 10
# the socket (use the full path to be safe
socket          = /path/to/your/project/mysite.sock
# ... with appropriate permissions - may be needed
# chmod-socket    = 664
# clear environment on exit
vacuum          = true

之后使用这个文件运行 uwsgi

uwsgi --ini mysite_uwsgi.ini # the --ini option is used to specify a file

Once again, test that the Django site works as expected.

参考链接

[0] http://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/tutorials/Django_and_nginx.html

[1] http://www.jianshu.com/p/e6ff4a28ab5a